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| Saturday, January 10, 2004 - 07:00 am |
I call my characters generally 'Malcolm' in RPG games so I thought How can I change this to a country name and Malcainia was born.
| Saturday, January 10, 2004 - 08:59 pm |
Well, I like the Spartans, Ask Deutchland why he calls me greekman ;) Or I'll explain...
Sparta was a Greek city-state located on the Eurotras River in southern Laconia
on the Peloponnesian peninsula. Situated between two mountain ranges, Sparta was
cut off geographically from the rest of the Greek city-states, even Messina
which is also located on the peninsula. This geographical isolation acted as a
natural barrier which affected the development of the Spartan State.
Eventually Sparta was transformed in to a military state. The lives of Spartans
were rigidly organized and controlled by the state. At birth children were
examined by officials to see if it would live or die. Those that were determined
to be too weak were taken into the mountains and left to die from exposure.
Males, upon reaching the age of seven, were sent to live in community barracks
and be trained in both military and athletic abilities. The schools taught the
endurance of extreme pain, wilderness survival skills, and discipline. After 13
years of training, a soldier began service in the standing army. He continued to
serve until the age of sixty, all the while being supported by a plot of land
given to him and farmed by helots. Although they were allowed to marry, they
remained eating and living in the barracks until they were sixty. At thirty they
were recognized as adults and were allowed to participate in the Assembly.
Raised from birth to believe that total loyalty to the state was the sole reason
for living, Sparta was able remain at the forefront of Greek culture.
Spartan society consisted of a three-tier class system. The helots made up the
bottom tier of the class system, these were slaves that provided labor for the
Spartanís agriculture industry. They worked small areas of land owned by a
Spartan who received a percentage of the helotís harvest. Next came the
perioeci, which translated means "dwellers around or about" who formed the
middle tier. These were the foreigners that lived in Sparta and carried out most
of the trade and commerce within both the state and the city. They were given
much of the same privileges of the Spartiate. The Spartiate were the native
Spartans who formed the top tier and the only inhabitants to receive full legal
and political rights. Spartan law was also based on the three-tier system. A
crime committed by a helot was much more serious than the same crime committed
by a Spartiate.
The government in Sparta was controlled by a dual monarchy. Below this monarchy
was the council consisting of 28 nobles, all of whom were retired from military
service, plus the two monarchs. Below the council was the assembly of all
Spartiates, forming a pseudo democracy.
THE GREEK DARK AGES(1150 BC-750 BC)
Spartaís roots can be traced back to the Greek Dark Ages(1150 BC-750 BC), after
the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. During this time the people of Greece
experienced an era of declining population and falling food production. As a
result their culture began to crumble and few records of that time period can be
found. What is known is that their was an invasion from a group to the north
known as the Dorians during the earliest years of the Dark Ages. They moved
southward out of Macedonia into main land Greece and the island of Crete(1220
BC) eventually conquering the last Mycenaean stronghold Peloponnesus(1120 BC).
According to Spartan tradition the dual kingship system originated during these
early years of Sparta. The Dorian invaders divided up the Peloponnesus between
the leaders of the Dorians, the Heracleidea. Lacedaemonia was given to the twins
Eurysthenes and Procles who set about destroying the last remaining Mycenaean
THE RENAISSANCE OF GREECE(750 BC-500 BC)
During the next 2 ½ centuries(750 BC-500 BC) Greek culture was dominated by two
developments: the polis and Greek colonization of the Mediterranean. Because the
Greek mainland had experienced such a population explosion towards the end of
the Dark Ages they began colonizing the Mediterranean. As a result the Greeks
had new ports from which they could import/export goods and culture. From this,
a new class of wealthy aristocrats arose who demanded political privileges.
These people became known as tyrants. Tyrants usually achieved power through a
coup dí etat and maintained it through the use of mercenary soldiers. Although
tyranny did not last it did play an important role in the development of the
The polis was a small but antonymous political unit from which all political,
religious, and social activities took place. A polis in ancient Greece was
usually nothing more than town, village, or city, to which the surrounding
countryside could gather. The polis originated in Sparta through the militaries
recruitment of regiments from five districts in Laconia and the reforms of
Lycurgus. By the 8th century BC it had emerged as the fundamental institution in
At this time, Spartanís were in the process of reforming their culture. The
Eunomia, as it came to be known were reforms set in motion by Lycurgus(825
BC-800 BC). It basic goal was to limit the power of the dual kingship, to change
the membership of the Counsil(Gerousia), and to ensure the rights of the
Assembly. According to these reforms the kings were still the commanders in
chief of the army in time of war. They also retained their importance within the
Spartan religious system. But, when it came to politics they were just another
member of the council. In this way they held no real political power over anyone
else. The council was in charge of proposing new motions which were then sent to
the Assembly for approval. Lycurgus also founded the Ephorate, five individuals
who went about inspecting the social system. They were equivalent to our Supreme
Expansion of Sparta
Aries- God of war was a patron god of the city, of wars, battles, and warriors,
and also of fearlessness in battle. In Sparta their was also a population
explosion that put strains on resources that were available. To remedy this
Sparta set about unifying the five villages that were descendants of
Heracleidae. When the five villages were united they formed the Spartan State.
In the next seventy years(800 BC-730 BC) the Spartanís conquered the rest of
Laconia and reduced them to serfs, known as perioikoi. The villages were then
supervised by a Spartan who resided in each, a harmostes. Perioikoi were forced
to pay a certain amount of their annual harvest to the harmostes. They were also
forced into the Spartan army and were subject to Spartan law even though they
had no citizenship or rights. Thus, the Spartan army was enlarged and a ring of
vassal villages protected Sparta from attack.
Next was the conquest of Messina(740 BC-720 BC), which enlarged the territory
controlled by Sparta. Although they were outnumbered seven to one by the
Messinians, Sparta was able to decisively defeat them and forced them into
working the land. The Messinians were able to keep their religious beliefs if
they promised not to rebel. This did not last long and Sparta was forced into
war once more. The Second Messenians War lasted twenty years(640 BC-620 BC).
During which Sparta defeated the Messenians again and also added Thyreatis to
the territory. The Messenians now became known as helots. In this way Sparta
became the most powerful city-state within a hundred years.
Persian Threat and the Spartan Alliance
Sparta was consistently hostile towards the Persian Empire to the east.
Alliances were made
with Persiaís enemies, most notably Croesus, Amasis, and the Scythians. Sparta
also attacked the tyrants who were still in power throughout the Greek mainland.
Tyrants who pledged allegiance to Persia, mainly Samos and Athens. In 524 BC
Sparta and her ally Corinth attacked the tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who at the
time had the leading fleet in the Aegean. Then in 511 BC they sent two
expeditions out trying to defeat the tyrant Peisistratids. Also in 510 BC they
defeated Aulis the tyrant of Phocis which increased Spartan prestige on mainland
Greece. Later in 508 BC they attempted to overthrow the tyrant Cleisthenes who
was negotiating with the Persians. The result of this military activity was an
alliance between the Greek city-states. The alliance came to be known as the
Spartan Alliance whose members included: Boeotia, Phocis, Athens, Chalcis, and
The Ionian revolt on the coast of Asia Minor was the basis for conflict with the
Persians. The cities located there were Greek emigrants who had migrated out of
Greece during the Dark Ages. Originally in the winter of 499 BC Aristagoras
sailed from Asia Minor to ask the Spartan king Cleomenes for aid. Cleomenes
refused to help on the basis that the Persian capital was located a months march
inland. Also the Spartan army was much smaller in size and would be at a
disadvantage fighting in those wide open conditions. Athens did agree to aid the
Ionians in the revolt with twenty ships, since most of them had emigrated from
Athens during the Dark Ages. In doing this Athens committed herself to war with
War with Persia
In 490 BC with preparations made Darius led an expedition against Athens. The
expedition consisted of over 600 ships and 25,000 infantrymen, archers, and
cavalrymen. Dariusís immediate goal was to punish Athens and Eretria for their
involvement in the Ionian revolt. His ultimate goal was to conquer the Greek
mainland and secure his newly acquired territories in Thrace, Macedonia, the
Cyclades, and the Ionian cities. If defeated the Greeks would be less likely of
helping a revolt in those lands. The force landed in the bay at Marathon twenty
six miles from Athens. At once a runner was sent to Sparta alerting them that a
Persian force had landed. The Spartanís were celebrating the festival of Apollo
and were unable to fight for six days. So the Athenian army of 10,000 marched
out of Athens towards the plain at Marathon to meet Darius head on. The
Athenians camped on the foothills next to the plain, opposite Dariusís forces
who were located on the coast with his fleet anchored in the bay. The Greeks
were the first to attack when it was brought to their attention by Ionianís
fighting within the Persian army that the calvary was away. They marched across
the plain of Marathon at dawn and quickly closed the one mile distance that had
separated the two camps. The Greeks fought bravely and drove the Persians, who
outnumbered them, back to their ships. Victory at Marathon did not ensure Greek
safety though. The Persian fleet sailed southwards around the horn and towards
Athens itself. Aware of this the Athenians led by their victorious general
Militiades, marched back to Athens to protect the city. Upon arrival the
Persians noticed that they had been beaten to the punch by the Athenian army.
Also the Spartans had marched 140 miles for three days straight to reach Athens.
Seeing this the Persians fled back to their capital of Susa. Although the
Spartanís did not take part in the fight they took notice of the military
tactics used by Militiades. This would come in to play when Dariusís son Xerxes
continued his campaign in 480 BC.
preparations for Xerxes invasion
Prior to the second war with Persia the Greeks made both political and military
preparations. In Athens the political system was revamped, trying to limit the
amount of warring done between the clans from which the politicians of the day
arose. Every year Athens would vote on a person who would be ostracized. This
reduced the likelyhood of a coup dí etat and brought stability to Athenian
politics. The people of Athens were then rallied behind one cause, protecting
Athens from the Persians. From this the navy enlarged itself from sixty to two
hundred ships. Athens was now a naval as well as a land power to be dealt with.
Although the Greek city-states admired Athens for standing up to Dariusí army,
they looked towards Sparta for leadership. Sparta was the head of an alliance
between Athens, Megara, Aegina, and Thebes against the Persians. And, as far as
the city-states of mainland Greece were concerned military power counted more
than naval power. So a meeting was held at Helenium(481 BC) were the Spartans
and the Athenians asked the other Greek city-states for their pledge in war
against Persia. In this meeting it was decided that both the naval and military
forces would be commanded by Spartans. The Athenians disagreed to this. They
though that they should have command of the navy, but all of the allies refused
to serve under the Athenians. The Greeks also believed that the attack would be
coming from the north and would be land based. This was due to the fact that the
Xerxes had been building a canal through the neck of the Athos peninsula to
allow easier ship movement. It was thought by the Greeks that this would allow
him to bring supplies by ship to the soldiers on land.
The members again met, though it would be the Ismithus between Athens and
Sparta, in 480 BC. By then the Greek organization came to be known as "The
League of the Greeks", and was the closest Greece came to unifying itself until
Alexander the Great. Members of the league numbered thirty-one city-states whose
membership was reconized by a bronze plaque at Delphi. The bulk of military
strength(40,000 heavily-armed infantrymen, 70,000 light-armed infantrymen) came
from the city-states on the Peloponesus, with the bulk of the navy(400
triremens) coming from Athens and her neighbors. Knowing that they were
outnumbered the Greeks planned to fight in narrow positions, where the massive
Persian army and cavalry would have no advantage in numbers.
Once the canal was built the stage was set for the Persian invasion. Xerxes set
out from Susa with an army that numbered 500,000 men and 4000 naval ships. Large
numbers of pack animals were needed to move the armies gear, hence movement was
only as fast as the slowest pack animal. The navy was used as a support force
that supplied the vast army. So the both of them slowly moved from one main
position to the next. It took five months for the Persians to march from their
capital to the battlefield, by the time they arrived it was September.
The plan of the Greek League was two fold: defend the mountain passes at
Thermopylae, and the stationing of the fleet at Artemisium. In so doing the
fleet and army would be within signaling distance of each other.
Battle of Thermoplyae
Xerxes army finally reached the plain in front of the mountain pass and
encountered seven thousand Greek soldiers consisting mostly of Pelopennesians.
Also during this time the Persian fleet was moving along the Greek coast with
its auxillaries. They were hit by a storm off Magnesia that destroyed over 800
of their 4000 ships. This cut in to the large naval force that had been amassed
by the Persians. Also part of Xerxes plan called for the navy to branch off in
to two separate fighting groups. A detachment of 200 ships was to move around
the Greek fleet and box them in. At that exact moment Xerxes planned to break
through at Thermopylae and advance to the mainland, then the coast. In one swift
movement he hoped to bottle-up the Greeks and slaughter them.
The Spartan contingent at Thermoplyae was able to hold off the Persians for
three days. Fighting hand to hand with the Persians striking quickly and then
retreating quickly, only to turn and fight again. Until, it was brought to
Xerxes attention of another pass that could be used to outflank the Greeks. The
Spartans it did give the main force of the army that had been celebraing
festivals at Delphi and Olympia the time reach the battlefield. It also took the
huge Persian cavalrymen out of the picture.
During this time the navies engaged each other too. The Greek navy being smaller
in numbers took up a defensive position, a circle. In doing so, the Persians
were unable to over run them. Although there was not decisive victory by either
side, the smaller Greek force was able to hold them off. When night fell a storm
once again blew in. The Persian fleet of 200 ships that had broken from the main
fleet earlier were caught in a savage storm, smashing them in to the rocks. The
next day 53 reserve ships arrived. At night fall the Greeks attacked again
sinking a number of Cilician vessels, Persian allies.
On the third day of fighting the Persians found the alternate pass and advanced
towards the Spartans at Thermoplyae. The Phoicans who were supposed to defend
the pass retreated like cowards, giving way freely. When the Spartan general
Leonidas heard of the advancing Persians he ordered everyone except the 300
Spartans retreat. The Spartans fought the Persians to the very last main,
sacrificing their lives for the good of Sparta. On sea the fighting resumed as
well. Since the Persians enjoyed their numbers they assumed a creasant shape,
hoping to envelop the Greek navy. The fighting was fierce and the Greeks lost
half of their fleet. Under the cloud of night they would retreat once again.
When Xerxes advanced once more over 20,000 of his best troops were dead and half
of his fleet was sunk or unfit for battle. At the battle of Thermoplyae only
4,000 lay dead, most of them were helots. The Greeks had shown superiorority in
man for man warfare. Their morale was no doubt soaring.
Battle of Salamis
The next engaement took place at Salamis and consisted of 380 Greek ships and
1,200 Persian ships. The Greek plan called for: ramming the Persian ships
broadside, then they would board them and use their superior weapons to
slaughter them. Also the plan called for a small force to protect an attack from
the north. When day broke fighting resumed once more. The Greek ships enticed
the larger Persian fleet in to the narrows. As this was happening the Persian
fleet was unable to hold her rank, things fell apart rapidly. The Phoenicians,
who had the best ships in the Persian fleet, advanced much faster than the rest
of the Persian fleet. As they were drawn in the waves acted on the ships turning
them broadside allowing the Athenian ships to ram and board them. The Athenian
marines, being heavily armed, routed the light-armed enemies. During this the
left wing was recieving heavy blows form the enemy. Once the Athenians defeated
the Phoenicians they turned to help their commrades. Again the Greeks wee able
to defeat the enemy on the left-wing. As the shattered Persian fleet retreated
towards Phalerum the Aeginetans on the left wing cut them off and rammed them.
By now it was late in the year and it was becoming unfit for warfare. Xerxes
retreated back to Thessaly were he was to winter. After a year of fighting their
was not a decisive victor. The Persian cavalry was still intact and in perfect
condition. But, the Greeks had crushed the Persian navy at Salamis with some
divine help from the gods.
Battle of Plataea
In late July of the next year, after the Persians had harvested the crops,="0"
again engaged each other. The Persian army was estimated by the Greeks to number
over 300,000 men, with the cavalry at the head. Mardonius the Persian cavalry
general planed for the Persians to take up the fight at Plataea. There his
cavalry would be able to maneuver, outflank the Greek infantry, and then
encircle them on all sides. It was here that they constructed a stockade too
protect the reserves and supplies. Mardonius hoped that his cavalry would bring
the swift and decisive victory that Xerxes himself had failed to achieve.
The Greek League had wintered at the Isthmus and was under the command of
Pausanias, nephew of Leonidas. Their force numbered 38,700 well armed hoplites
and 70,000 light-armed infantrymen, most of which were Helots. When the Greek
army finally reached the Plataea it became apparent that the supply line was
insufficient. The Greeks made the decision that an attack as soon as possible
would be in their best interest.
At dawn the Persian cavalry began the attack. When the two armies met the Greeks
were in disarray, they were trying to maneuver their lines during the night.
Finding that the Greek army was in disarray he ordered the infantry to advance
as well. This would prove to be a costly mistake, for the Greeks had superior
armor. The Greeks stood firm and held their lines until the Persian advance was
at their toes. As the two armies converged it soon became apparent that the
Greek weaponry was difference. Even though the Greeks were outnumbered they
managed to push back the enemies lines. The fighting was particularly fierce
where Mardonius and the imperial guard were fighting. Here too the Greeks
advanced through the enemies lines, eventually killing him. Seeing this the
Persian infantry broke and began to flee, with the Greek holites in hot pursuit.
They then laid seige to the Persian stockade, eventually breaching the fortress.
When they finished, the Greeks had managed to slaughter the whole Persian
infantry like penned-up pigs.
Battle of Mycale
To prevent the Xerxes from building another army and continuing the fight the
Greeks knew that they would have to crush the Persian navy. For without the navy
the army could not be supplied, hence thePersians would not be able to sustain
an army of 500,000 on the Greek mainland.
When the Greek fleet left Aegina they numbered 250 warships and 50,000 men(5,000
hoplites and 45,000 sailors). The Greeks pursued the Persian navy back the
coastal town of Mycale. Here the Persian force of 100,000 had once again built a
stockade to protect their forces. Seeing this the Greeks decided to land just
down the coast from the Persians. From here the Greeks advanced on the Persians
at once. The Greek army managed to push the enemy all the way bake to their
stockade. Once all the Greek forces were brought toegether they converged on the
Persian stockade. In the onslaught that followed over 45,000 Persians were be
killed. Their ships were burnt on the shore and the remaining force was taken
Now, if you read all that, you'll Understand why I name myself the SSSR... Also.. My Company name is Red Star, well Red Star Industrial, Used to be Red Star Construction.. Well, if you've ever looked at pictures of the USSR, the Red Star (along with Hammer & Sickle) are prominent.. I have Lenin AKA Vladimir Illich as my President Symbol, because I think he was a great man...
| Saturday, January 10, 2004 - 10:03 pm |
lol i told you that was a nick name for some other guy with spartan in it
i like spartans to but i like the norse evan better